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Abstract The security of HMAC (and more general hash-based MACs) against state-recovery and universal forgery attacks was very recently shown to be suboptimal, following a series of surprising results by Leurent et al. and Peyrin et al. . http://www.cheapnikeairmaxnz.nu These results have shown that such powerful attacks require much less than 2 ℓ computations, contradicting the common belief (where ℓ denotes the internal state size). In this work, we revisit and extend these results, with a focus on properties of concrete hash functions such as a limited message length, and special iteration modes. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nike We begin by devising the first state-recovery attack on HMAC with a HAIFA hash function (using a block counter in every compression function call), with complexity 2 4ℓ/5 . Then, we describe improved trade-offs between the… message length and the complexity of a state-recovery attack on HMAC. cheapnikeairmaxnz Consequently, we obtain improved attacks on several HMAC constructions used in practice, in which the hash functions limit the maximal message length (e.g., SHA-1 and SHA-2 ). Finally, we present the first universal forgery attacks, Cheap nike air max shoes nz which can be applied with short message queries to the MAC oracle. In particular, we devise the first universal forgery attacks applicable to SHA-1 and SHA-2 .

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Internet and e-commerce have profoundly changed society, the economy, and the world of health care. The web offers opportunities to improve health, but it may also represent a big health hazard since it is a basically unregulated market with very low consumer protection. In this paper we analyze marketing and pricing strategies of online pharmacies (OPs). http://www.cheapnikeairmaxnz.nu Our analysis shows that OPs use strategies that would be more suitable for a commodity market than for drugs.cheapnikeairmaxnz These strategies differentiate according to variety (brand or generic), quality, quantity, and target group. OPs are well aware that the vacuum in the legislation allows them to reach a target of consumers that pharmacies cannot normally reach, such as those who would like to use the drug without consulting a physician (or, even… worse, against the physician’s advice). In this case, they usually charge a higher price, reassure the users by minimizing on the side effects, and induce them to bulk purchase through sensible price discounts. Cheap nike air max nz This analysis suggests that the selling of drugs via the Internet can turn into a “public health risk”, as has been pointed out by the US Food and Drug Administration.

This article presents an overview on the research and development and application aspects for the hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collector systems. http://www.cheapnikeairmaxnz.nu A major research and development work on the photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) hybrid technology has been done since last 30 years. cheapnikeairmaxnz Different types of solar thermal collector and new materials for PV cells have been developed for efficient solar energy utilization. The solar energy conversion into electricity and heat with a single device (called hybrid photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) collector) is a good advancement for future energy demand. Nike air max nz sale
This review presents the trend of research and development of technological advancement in photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) solar collectors and its useful applications like as solar heating, water desalination,… solar greenhouse, solar still, photovoltaic–thermal solar heat pump/air-conditioning system, building integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPVT) and solar power co-generation.

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